Hawthorne effect: When people modify their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. This term is attributed to sociologist Henry Landsberger, who analyzed this behavior during experiments at the Hawthorne Works, a Western Electric factory outside Chicago.
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP): A quality management system for effectively and efficiently ensuring farm-to-table food safety in the United States. HACCP regulations for various sectors are established by the Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration.
Heijunka: A method of leveling production, usually at the final assembly line, that makes just-in-time production possible. It involves averaging the volume and sequence of different model types on a mixed model production line. Using this method avoids excessive batching of different types of product and volume fluctuations in the same product. Also see “production smoothing.”
Highly accelerated life test (HALT): A process for uncovering design defects and weaknesses in electronic and mechanical assemblies using a vibration system combined with rapid high and low temperature changes. The purpose of HALT is to optimize product reliability by identifying the functional and destructive limits of a product at an early stage in product development.
Highly accelerated stress audits (HASA): A technique in which a sample of parts (as opposed to 100% of the production, as in HASS) is subjected to stresses similar to the levels and duration for HALT. In monitoring the production process, the intent of HASA is to detect slight shifts in the attributes of the product so corrective actions can be taken and implemented before the performance of outgoing product approaches the specifications.
Highly accelerated stress screening (HASS): A technique for production screening that rapidly exposes process or production flaws in products. Its purpose is to expose a product to optimized production screens without affecting product reliability. Unlike HALT, HASS uses nondestructive stresses of extreme temperatures and temperature change rates with vibration.
Histogram: A graphic summary of variation in a set of data. The pictorial nature of a histogram lets people see patterns that are difficult to detect in a simple table of numbers. One of the “seven tools of quality” (see listing).
Honorary member, ASQ: ASQ’s highest grade of membership. As specified in ASQ’s constitution, “An honorary member shall have rendered acknowledged eminent service to the quality profession or the allied arts and sciences.” To attain this level, an individual must be nominated by at least 10 regular members and must be approved unanimously by the board of directors.
Hoshin kanri: The selection of goals, projects to achieve the goals, designation of people and resources for project completion and establishment of project metrics. Also see “policy deployment.”
Hoshin planning: Breakthrough planning. A Japanese strategic planning process in which an organization develops up to four vision statements that indicate where the organization should be in the next five years. Organizational goals and work plans are developed based on the vision statements. Periodic submitted audits are then conducted to monitor progress. Also see “value stream.”
Hotelling's T2 model: A multivariate profile for detecting differential expressions in microarrays.
House of quality: A product planning matrix, somewhat resembling a house, that is developed during quality function deployment and shows the relationship of customer requirements to the means of achieving these requirements.