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Quality Glossary - E

E

Effect: The result of an action being taken; the expected or predicted impact when an action is to be taken or is proposed.

Effectiveness: The state of having produced a decided on or desired effect.

Efficiency: The ratio of the output to the total input in a process.

Efficient: A term describing a process that operates effectively while consuming minimal resources (such as labor and time).

Eight wastes: Taiichi Ohno originally enumerated seven wastes (muda) and later added underutilized people as the eighth waste commonly found in physical production. The eight are: 1. overproduction ahead of demand; 2. waiting for the next process, worker, material or equipment; 3. unnecessary transport of materials (for example, between functional areas of facilities, or to or from a stockroom or warehouse); 4. over-processing of parts due to poor tool and product design; 5. inventories more than the absolute minimum; 6. unnecessary movement by employees during the course of their work (such as to look for parts, tools, prints or help); 7. production of defective parts; 8. under-utilization of employees’ brainpower, skills, experience and talents.

Eighty-twenty (80-20): A term referring to the Pareto principle, which was first defined by J. M. Juran in 1950. The principle suggests most effects come from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. Also see “Pareto chart.”

Electric data interchange (EDI): The electronic exchange of data from customers to suppliers and from suppliers to customers.

Employee involvement (EI): An organizational practice whereby employees regularly participate in making decisions on how their work areas operate, including suggestions for improvement, planning, goal setting and monitoring performance

EN 46000: Medical device quality management systems standard. EN 46000 is technically equivalent to ISO 13485:1996, an international medical device standard. The two are similar enough that if an organization is prepared to comply with one, it could easily comply with the other.

EN 9100: An international quality management standard for the aerospace industry (see AS9100).

End user: See “consumer.”

Equipment availability: The percentage of time during which a process (or equipment) is available to run. This can sometimes be called uptime. To calculate operational availability, divide the machine’s operating time during the process by the net available time.

Error detection: A hybrid form of error proofing. It means a bad part can be made but will be caught immediately, and corrective action will be taken to prevent another bad part from being produced. A device is used to detect and stop the process when a bad part is made. This is used when error proofing is too expensive or not easily implemented.

Error proofing: Use of process or design features to prevent the acceptance or further processing of nonconforming products. Also known as “mistake proofing.”

Ethics: The practice of applying a code of conduct based on moral principles to day-to-day actions to balance what is fair to individuals or organizations with what is right for society.

European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA): A cooperative organization of accreditation bodies.

Exciter: See “delighter.”

Exemplar Global: Organization that designs, develops and delivers personnel and training certification sources.

Expectations: Customer perceptions about how an organization’s products and services will meet their specific needs and requirements.

Experimental design: A formal plan that details the specifics for conducting an experiment, such as which responses, factors, levels, blocks, treatments and tools are to be used.

External customer: A person or organization that receives a product, service or information but is not part of the organization supplying it. Also see “internal customer.”

External failure: Nonconformance identified by the external customers.

External setup: Die setup procedures that can be performed safely while the machine is in motion. Also known as outer exchange of die. Also see “internal setup.”