MacroPCA: An All-in-One PCA Method Allowing for Missing Values as Well as Cellwise and Rowwise Outliers
- November 2019
- Volume 61 Issue 4
- pp. 459-473
- Hubert, Mia, Rousseeuw, Peter J., Van den Bossche, Wannes
The copyright of this article is not held by ASQ.
Multivariate data are typically represented by a rectangular matrix (table) in which the rows are the objects (cases) and the columns are the variables (measurements). When there are many variables one often reduces the dimension by principal component analysis (PCA), which in its basic form is not robust to outliers. Much research has focused on handling rowwise outliers, that is, rows that deviate from the majority of the rows in the data (e.g., they might belong to a different population). In recent years also cellwise outliers are receiving attention. These are suspicious cells (entries) that can occur anywhere in the table. Even a relatively small proportion of outlying cells can contaminate over half the rows, which causes rowwise robust methods to break down. In this article, a new PCA method is constructed which combines the strengths of two existing robust methods to be robust against both cellwise and rowwise outliers. At the same time, the algorithm can cope with missing values. As of yet it is the only PCA method that can deal with all three problems simultaneously. Its name MacroPCA stands for PCA allowing for Missingness And Cellwise & Rowwise Outliers. Several simulations and real datasets illustrate its robustness. New residual maps are introduced, which help to determine which variables are responsible for the outlying behavior. The method is well-suited for online process control.