| Cart Total:
Learn About Quality

what is the Nine Windows technique?

Quality Glossary Definition: Nine windows

The nine windows technique is defined as a method for exploring issues and their potential impacts by examining the past, present, and future of both high-level areas and their related subsections. This technique is often used as a way to ensure companies change and evolve without relying on past tactics that might not work as well in the present world.

How Nine Windows Drives Solutions & Idea Creation

A nine windows matrix or diagram is an idea creation tool to ensure that companies, teams, and individuals do not stop innovating or developing new ideas and methods for systems, services, and products. It helps separate a problem in space and time. Once the problem has been isolated, it helps in changing the parameters of the related objects based on condition, time, or environment, or all three.

Using the nine windows process and exploring a potential solution as a system with time-space dimensions can help break the psychological inertia associated with repeating the same actions and expecting the same results (e.g., "This is how we’ve always done things" and "Why bother changing things? We’ll only get the exact same results"). 

The eight routine causes of psychological inertia are:

  1. Having a fixed vision (model) of the solution or the root cause.
  2. False assumptions (trusting the data).
  3. Specific terminology in a language that is a strong carrier of psychological inertia.
  4. Experience, expertise, and reliance upon previous results.
  5. Limited knowledge, hidden resources, or mechanisms.
  6. Inflexibility (model worship), trying to prove a specific theory, stubbornness.
  7. Reusing the same strategy.
  8. Rushing to a solution, incomplete thinking.

Each of the above causes can be improved using nine windows. This tool prompts organizations and teams to explore a problem in the past (and possible future) at both the super-system and subsystem levels, instead of thinking about the problem only in terms of the present and at the system level. As organizations and teams extend their thinking about the problem to view it in new and different contexts that are systemic and time-oriented, these groups are better able to break free of psychological inertia and find solutions increases.

How to Use Nine Windows

To use nine windows, write the problem and the current system for solutions in the center of a 3 x 3 matrix, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Nine Windows Matrix

Figure 1 - Nine Windows Matrix

Next, explore the problem at each of the three levels:

  • Super-system (or Macro system): External environment and components that the problem or system interacts or may interact with
  • System: The problem or system that was created
  • Subsystem (or Micro system): A component or parts of the problem or system

To complete the System row, list what started the problem in the Past/System cell, and then list the goal—where the project will ideally end up after the solution—in the Future/System cell.

To complete the Super-system row, first list everything one would do to prevent the current problem (in the environment that the system functions) in the Past/Super-system cell. Next, list everything one can do to fix the problem going forward in Future/Super-system cell.

Once the team has explored the problem and the system in the present, move on to the past and the future. To do so, list everything one could do in the past to prevent the problem in the Past/Subsystem cell. Then, list everything one can do in the future (if the problem still exists) in the Future/Subsystem cell. Explore all nine windows by asking:

  • Can the company or team do something at the subsystem, system, or super-system level in advance to fix or avoid the problem or improve the system?
  • Can the company or team do something at the subsystem, system, or super-system level in the future to fix or avoid the problem or improve the system?
  • Can the company or team do something at the subsystem, system, or super-system level in the present to fix or avoid the problem or improve the system?

Nine Windows Example

Nine windows can be a valuable planning tool for human systems issues like team building, personal development, and leadership. The example in Figure 2 demonstrates the use of nine windows in planning for safety improvement.

The item or activity being planned goes in the center box (system level). The past and the future are planning goals. Review each window on timescales best suited for achieving future solutions and ideal outcomes to make sure that the system, super-system, and subsystem will develop to achieve the expected results.

Figure 2 - Plan For Safety Improvement

  Past Present Future
Super-system Corporation where safety is not a priority Corporation where message that safety is a priority has not gotten through Corporation where safety is a priority
System Employees take occasional risks to get the job done Ladder slipped and employee was injured in fall Injury rate will be unacceptable
Subsystem Management has criticized workers who stop production in the face of danger Workers remember the incidents, in spite of management’s assertion that safety is paramount Management has provided positive recognition for stopping production in the face of danger

This example uses multiple timelines, but companies and teams can choose the timeline they want, selecting a specific date or leaving the dates open in the past and future. Once the nine windows plan is developed, the team can then plan and explore solutions to improve safety performance.

For example, the team should consider how to develop a culture where safety is a priority in action and language so employees know that it is a fundamental component of their work. One possibility is to create systems and real-time procedures to catch safety problems before they occur on the plant floor or at the work site. Another idea might be to develop training so that management includes safety in the evaluation of effectiveness and to develop the proper metrics for positive recognition for stopping unsafe production activities.

If safety problems continue, the team can begin to implement future solutions within the subsystem, system, and super-system to change or influence how the past, present, and future processes are utilized.

What is TRIZ?

Nine windows is a tool often used in the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ). TRIZ is defined as a problem-solving analysis and forecasting tool developed by Genrich Altshuller, a Soviet inventor and science-fiction writer, in the middle of the 20th century. Altshuller derived this tool from the study of patterns of invention in the global patent literature. It’s purpose is to provide a systematic approach to innovation by assuming that any given problem has already been solved.

TRIZ Definition

T Teorija
R Reshenija
I Izobretatelskih
Z Zadach

TRIZ is unique due to its approach of "what a problem is." Specifically, TRIZ faces all potential problems as a contradiction of two different situations that cannot be implemented commonly together. As a tool made by engineers for engineers, the 40 principles of TRIZ may appear to be industry oriented. However, they can be applied to the business sector or even everyday problems.

TRIZ can be carried out in three main steps:

  1. Define the problem and the expression of the contradiction in a clear and simple way.
  2. Approach the problem as a system and monitor all the interactions and the stakeholders that may exist while zooming in and out of the system within time. Nine windows is the most appropriate technique for such an analysis.
  3. Determine the most powerful principles applicable for the respective problem and easily to come up with innovative ideas for improving the strategy.


You can also search articles, case studies, and publications for nine windows and TRIZ resources.


Innovative Business Management Using TRIZ

Case Studies

Innovating Social Media Marketing Strategy via TRIZ Approach (PDF) This case study is an illustrative example of the implementation of TRIZ. The project derived from a two-day workshop held by Sunil Kaushik at the University of Piraeus during the 2017 Quality Days conference in Athens, Greece.

Multipronged Approach (Quality Progress) This article presents a case study of one organizations use of multiple quality frameworks, including control charts, 5S, kaizen, lean, Six Sigma, ISO 9000, total quality management, the software capability maturity model integration (CMMI), IT Infrastructure Library, benchmarking, and TRIZ .


Quality Tool - TRIZ

Sections of this page first appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of The Human Element, a member-benefit publication of ASQ's Human Development and Leadership Division.

Featured Advertisers