# Knowledge Center

The ASQ Standards Team invites the public to submit technical questions regarding standards. Please be aware that the team will answer your questions by seeking guidance from volunteer experts. This may take a little while. On average, questions are answered within two or three weeks.

Submit question by e-mailing the team at standards@asq.org.

Here are some questions the Standards Team has answered in the past:

Is there a statistically significant difference between the ANSI/ASQ standard and C=0?

How do I read the ANSI Z1.4 standard?

Regarding ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 -1993, what are the sampling procedures for reduced, normal, and tightened sampling? How do you go about determining the most appropriate sampling procedure?

Is there any difference between ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001:2000 and ISO 9001:2000? Is it just semantic or is it ASQ’s take on ISO 9001?

My employer asked me to retire early. I am exploring all my options, including networking through TAG groups.

What is the difference between ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q10011-1994 Series standards and ANSI/ISO/ASQ QE19011S-2004?

How do I know if a company is certified (to ISO 9001, ISO 14001, etc.)?

How can I find the ISO 9001 accreditation body for a different country?

What makes a standard a standard?

What’s the difference between ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001:2000 and ASQ Z1.11-2002?

1Q: My question is pertinent to the ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003 Sampling standard. Can someone at ASQ tell me if there is a statistically significant difference between this ANSI/ASQ standard and C=0? Of these two standards is one preferable to the other and if so why? We wish to standardize our sampling methods in receiving inspection and need to understand the differences in these standards so that we can make an informed decision.

1A: There are major differences. Z 1.4 is a sampling scheme and has single, double and multiple sampling plans. It employs the use of switching rules. It does contain some C=0 plans. C=0 plans are one type or group of sampling plan that is generally used for critical characteristics.

2Q: How do I read ANSI Z1.4 standard?

2A: Read sections 1 through 11.6.3 on pages 1 through 8 of the standard.

USING ANSI/ASQ Z1.4-2003

 Step Action Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 1 Determine lot size 50 2 232 232 232 2 Determine inspection level General III S-3 General II General II General II 3 Determine AQL 1.0 0.65 0.1 0.4 1.0 4 See page 10 Table I to determine sample size code letter listed for the lot size and inspection level E A G G G 5 Choose type of sampling plan (single, double, multiple) Single Single Double Double Double 6 ** Go to table X –code letter-2 for Sampling plans for the code letter X-E-2 X-A-2 Delta symbol references next code letter where Ac and Re numbers are available. X-F-2 X-G-2 Delta symbol references next code letter where Ac and Re numbers are available. X-K-2 This refers the user to use the single sampling plan above (earlier in the tables) X-G-2 This refers the user to use the single sampling plan above (earlier in the tables) X-G-2 Refers to code letter H 7 Determine sample size(s) 13 20 125 32 32 32 8 Determine Accept (Ac) number(s) O O 0 0 0 1 9 Determine Reject (Re) number(s) 1 1 1 1 2 2 Notes Since sample size is greater than lot size, inspect entire lot

**Alternatively tables II-A can be used for single sampling plans, III-A for double sampling plans or IV-A for multiple sampling plans. All of these tables are the normal plans where sampling is imitated. Reduced or tightened plans are reached through the use of the switching rules.

3Q: Regarding ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 -1993, what are the sampling procedures for reduced, normal, and tightened sampling? How do you go about determining the most appropriate sampling procedure? What are the differences for ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 -1993 compared with ANSI/ASQ Z1.4 -2003?

3A: Regarding ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 -1993, what are the sampling procedures for reduced, normal, and tightened sampling? How do you go about determining the most appropriate sampling procedure?

--The first 11 paragraphs of the standard describe the procedures to be used. The selection is based on economics.

What are the differences for ANSI/ASQC Z1.4 -1993 compared with ANSI/ASQ Z1.4 -2003?

-- The definition of AQL was changed from Acceptance Qualimit from Acceptable Quality Level. Referenced standards were updated to current standards and some mostly editorial changes in the tables were made.

4Q. Is there any difference between ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001:2000 and ISO 9001:2000? Is it just semantic or is it ASQ’s take on ISO 9001?

4A. The text is identical and they can be referred to interchangeably. Because of our involvement in developing the standard, we are able to sell it to our ASQ members for a discounted price (\$52.00 members, \$65.00 list, ANSI sells for \$81.00, ISO sells e-version for 99CHF). The ANSI designation shows it has been adopted as an American National Standard, which means it has successfully passed a public review and US experts have deemed it appropriate for use in the US.

5Q. My employer asked me to retire early. I am exploring all my options, including networking through TAG groups.

5A. We don’t have any formal mechanisms for resume or job postings in the standards area, but the standards meetings would be a good place to network.  At the bi-annual meetings, there is a large contingent of members from various industries. Since you are an ASQ member, you could utilize the our free ASQ Career Services http://www.asq.org/career/index.html. Once you create an account online, you can post your resume and search for quality-related jobs.

Also, ASQ have various sections and one might be in your area. Many of the sections have resources for searching jobs and posting resumes/CVs – for example: http://www.asqdetroit.org/job_connection.php

6Q. What is the difference between ANSI/ISO/ASQC Q10011-1994 Series standards and ANSI/ISO/ASQ QE19011S-2004 ?

6A. The most important differences between 10011:1994 and QE19011S:2004 are:

• 19011 included the environmental community. 10011 didn't. With all the interest in climate change, environmental controls become increasingly more important.
• 19011 captures two decades of additional auditing thought. 10011 is based on the Canadian Z-395, which was developed for the early nuclear industry. Highly regulated.
• But the best of all -- the USA version contains a supplement explaining how to apply it to small businesses and internal auditing. The 19011, like the 10011 was written by conformity assessment registrars for third party registration audits. (That's why they continue to use the word "client.")
• 19011 contains basic audit principles, something 10011 did not.

Quality Audits for Improved Performance, available through Quality Press, is a relevant book related to both standards.

Additionally, the U.S. will be releasing a revision to QE19011s:2004; the new version is QE19011s:2008. The revision is modeled after ISO 9004:2000; that is, the verbatim text of QE19011 (ISO 19011) is given and is followed by supplemental guidance for internal audits, second-party (supplier) audits, occupational health and safety audits, and for use by small organizations for the full range of audit activities.

7Q: How do I know if a company is certified (to ISO 9001, ISO 14001, etc.)?

7A: There is a website unaffiliated with ASQ called Global Quality Exchange that allows you to look up by state, organization name, ISO number, and more. It is a fee-based service.

8Q: How can I find the ISO 9001 accreditation body for a different country?

8A: The best resource is the International Accreditation Forum home page. From there, click on "IAF Members" link on the left-side menu and then choose "View List By Economy" (basically the same as viewing by country) and select from there.

9Q: What makes a standard a standard? I am referencing a document that contains guidelines for research quality – and am unsure if this document is a standard, because it mentions "guidelines", not "requirements."

9A: Standards are overwhelmingly a set of guidelines specific to a field or written as general suggested procedure. ISO 9001 is perhaps the best-known standard available, and the title explains it as a set of requirements for quality management. However, most other standards are guidelines/suggestions from their authors suggesting the best way to perform quality practices and achieve desired results.

What makes a standard a standard is the process it undergoes from conception to publication – the ideas, the writing process, the review and approval of the standard by the appropriate evaluating body. While some standards are listed and published as requirements for a specific practice or system, most others are merely suggestions by those who have had success creating quality products or processes with those guidelines in place. The "ISO" or "ANSI" indicator at the beginning of the document’s title makes its reader aware that it has been adopted and approved by ISO (international) or ANSI (national).

10Q: What’s the difference between ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001:2000 and ASQ Z1.11-2002?

10A: ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001:2000 is a generic quality systems requirement standard. ASQ’s Z1.11-2002 standard is an interpretation and application of Q9001:2000 standard as it applies to both the education and service markets.