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Open Access

Best of Back to Basics: Outputs and Outcomes

by Westcott, Russ

When project objectives are set, the term “deliverables” is often used to specify those tangible things produced by the project. Two key factors, however, are often overlooked....

Open Access

Best of Back to Basics: Supplier Selection and Maintenance

by Arter, Dennis R.

The extent you go to depends on the associated cost, production and risk

In this case, identify those quality system requirements critical to success, put them on a page and include the page as part of the PO package. To control the goods and services companies buy, they must thoroughly define their requirements for the item...

Open Access

Continuing Education and Development Directory

by QP Staff

So if feeling stuck, stagnant or dispirited, look into amping up your smarts with some of the best training, education and certification opportunities available today. Not only will you be helping to ensure your employability, you.ll increase you...

Small Changes, Big Results

by Harris, Chris; Audimoolam, Niran; Gudgel, Stephen A.

For a hitter in baseball, transitioning from one who relies on the big home run to win games to one who slaps out singles and doubles can be difficult. The same holds true for lean enterprise implementers....

Open Access

Career Corner: PR Savvy

by Lindborg, Henry

What quality professionals can learn from the public relations playbook....

Open Access

Step It Up

by Grigg, Alfred; Hirt, Michael; Laman, Scott A.; Marmon, Jerry; and McShane Vaughn, Mary

SITTING IS THE new smoking. The more you sit and stagnate, some doctors say, the poorer the outlook is on your health and even life expectancy—regardless of how fit you think you are....

Standards Outlook: Revision Runway

by Cressionnie, L.L. "Buddy"

Revision activities on AS9100—Quality management systems—Requirements for aviation, space and defense organizations continue....

Need for Speed

by Spencer, Karen; Helfer, Steve

Organizations must focus on key indicators and achieve optimal performance levels. They must define quality as it relates to customers and modify quality to achieve and sustain quality levels that maximize supply chain performance and quality management....

Open Access

No Weak Links

by Bailey, Bill D.; Alter, Howard

A global telecommunications organization decided to use the lean tool value stream mapping, along with the eight rights and seven supply chain wastes to better understand its complete supply chain and to help avoid suboptimization....

Speaking in Code

by Kaiser, Randy

Manufacturers spend time and money creating products for market, yet all of that hard work can be wasted if coding errors affect product quality....

3.4 per Million: The ‘Initiative’ Olympic Games

by Carnell, Mike

It seems that the business world has experienced a fairly rapid transition in focus to “innovation” as the next initiative or the next big thing. Meanwhile, leadership teams wander the vast Serengeti Plain of performance improvement....

2013 Salary Survey: Part 1, Section 15. Salary by Extent of Quality Responsibilities

by Hansen, Max Christian

In QP’s quality survey, respondents are asked: “In your company, how many people do you think have quality responsibilities stated in their job descriptions?” In 2009, a majority noted a figure of 25% or less....

Standards Outlook: Checking the Checkers

by Russell, J. P.

ISO 19011:2011—Guidelines for auditing management systems provides guidance for managing audit programs. Clause 5.6 provides guidance on improving an audit program, just as other departments in an organization are expected to continue to improve....

Open Access

To All Corners of Kenya

by Darabi, Tiffany

Effective supply chains deliver products on schedule and within budget to customers. Those customers shouldn’t have to think about the behind-the-scenes process or worry about whether the goods will be delivered on time....

Standards Outlook: Keeping Watch

by Russell, J.P.

Supply chain management is important to ensure organizations can compete in the global market. Organizations continue to focus on core competencies, resulting in greater dependence on high-quality materials and services from suppliers....

Innovation Imperative: Put It on Paper

by Merrill, Peter

Last year, the ASQ Quality Management Division’s Innovation and Value Creation Technical Committee conducted its first evaluation of ASQ readiness for innovation certification....

Standards Outlook: From the Trenches

by Liebesman, Sandford

ISO 9001 and the COSO internal control guidance document used by financial organizations that must comply with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act don’t have a lot in common, but one thing they share is the need to update the current version....

Standards Outlook: Group Effort

by Cressionnie, L.L. "Buddy"

When users think about AS9100, they typically think only of the AS9100 quality management system standard and not about the other products and services the International Aerospace Quality Group provides to the aviation, space and defense industry....

Expert Answers: June 2012

by QP Staff

Continuous vs. discrete data ... Get IT under control ... You must measure ......

Standards Outlook: Revised Thinking

by Liebesman, Sandford

COSO developed the internal control integrated framework in 1992 in response to the savings and loan scandals of the 1980s. COSO is now 20 years old and is due for an upgrade to incorporate changes in the financial environment....

Quality Curriculum

by Taylor, James B.; Sinn, John W.; Lightfoot, William S.

Does quality exist as an entity independent of business? Are the business of quality and the quality of business simply two sides of the same coin? No matter—the quality discipline has become inextricably woven into business....

Growth Chart

by Olson, Diane J.; Sinn, John W.;

Globalization, as well as demands from people, business and technology, require organizations to deliver high-quality performance to remain competitive. Quality methods can allow alignment with rapidly changing and increasing customer expectations....

Reaching Out

by Blumenthal, Cynthia

In his Pulitzer Prize-winning novel Middlesex, Jeffery Eugenides describes life at Ford Motor Co. in the 1920s, detailing how unskilled workers tried to match the calculated pace of assembly lines and a manufacturer that made almost every part itself....

A Change in Focus

by Lokas, Karim

It is ironic that the life-sciences industry’s approach to quality management systems has been lagging rather than leading due to a fundamental focus on compliance with regulation versus a holistic process for improving quality....

Standards Outlook: Hand in Hand

by Cressionnie, L.L. "Buddy"

Beginning July 1, all aviation, space and defense (AS&D) quality management system (QMS) certification body audits were required to be conducted according to a newly released AS&D QMS standard....

Open Access

What Have We Learned?

by Reid, R. Dan

In a general way, the disaster in Japan provides us with a good context to see what lessons can be learned from fundamental quality management science....

Open Access

One Good Idea: Going Up?

by Schvaneveldt, Shane J.

Need to pitch an idea about quality to a busy executive? If so, an elevator speech may be just what you need....

Standards Outlook: Benefit Without a Doubt

by Bucher, Jay

In the typical executive reward system, bonuses are based, in part, on implementing creative solutions to complex problems rather than using standardization. for strategic advantage....

Standards Outlook: The Bottom Line

by Liebesman, Sandford

Quality and environmental managers need to understand the language of finance and the effect of operations on the bottom line, while financial managers need to know how quality and environmental managers can help improve results....

Standard Outlook: In Transition

by Cressionnie, L.L. "Buddy"

The 30-month transition period for the aviation, space and defense (AS&D) quality management system (QMS) standard began Jan. 1. With plenty of time to get familiar with the QMS documents, organizations are striving to meet their requirements....

Open Access


by Murphy, William H.

All companies want to build a stronger brand by ensuring customer satisfaction. Along the way, of course, the companies want to make a profit....

Quality 3.0

by Kukor, Kreg

Two quality leaders weigh in on the current direction of quality management, sustainable quality improvements and their visions of what “Quality 3.0” will bring....

Open Access

Career Corner: Where Have All the CQOs Gone?

by Hutchins, Greg

Two weeks ago, I got a call from an acquaintance who said he’d have to find a new job during the next six months or so. He is the chief quality officer (CQO) of a major company. He’s getting a great severance package, but it was still unexpected...

Standards Outlook: Trust, but Verify

by Russell, J.P.

Grouping product, service and process audits together is somewhat natural, because a process audit may include a product or service audit. I’ve dubbed the combination a verification audit....

A Simple Plan

by Kukor, Kreg

For more than 100 years, U.S. manufacturers have advanced equipment and manufacturing technologies to constantly monitor progress and drive process improvement....

Driven to Succeed

by Bullington, Kimball

Strategic planning is an important element in quality management, as evidenced by the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award criteria. A strategic plan is the aim of an organization that helps to reduce variation related to possible strategic outcomes....

Standards Outlook: Down With Silos

by Liebesman, Sandford

Businesses today have multiple management systems, including financial, quality and environmental. Unfortunately, these management systems usually do not talk to one another....

Open Access

In the Know

by Ramu, Govindarajan

More and more organizations are choosing outsourcing as a necessary means of remaining competitive in the global economy. Quality professionals must consider building a body of knowledge completely dedicated to the subject of quality in outsourcing....

Open Access

Online Figure 1 Ramu

by Ramu, Govindarajan

Outsourcing BoK Expected cognition Perceived weight CMQ/ OE CQE CQA CSQE ( New) CRE CSSBB CSSGB CCT CBA CHA CQT CQPA CQIA CQI Project management 10 Project charter Create Create Apply Project estimation and tracking Analyze Apply Apply Apply Understand C...

Open Access

Back to Basics: Outputs versus Outcomes

by Westcott, Russell T.

When project objectives are set, the term “deliverables” is often used to specify those tangible things produced by the project. Two key factors, however, are often overlooked....

Strength in Numbers

by Gardner, Leslie; Osburn, Terrence; Pearson, Tom

Finding resources to pursue quality improvement and organizational excellence is the greatest challenge confronting most organizations today, including universities and professional organizations....

K'NEX Success

by Krzykowski, Brett

As a result of the recent lead scare, companies many have grown to trust—Fisher-Price, Mattel, J.C. Penney—found themselves on recall lists instead of in kids’ hands during the holidays. Some companies, however, were able to skirt the issue....

Open Access

Strong Foundation, Solid Future

by Leonard, Denis

In the wake of the scandals five years ago that shook consumer confidence in business leaders and the economy, I co-wrote an article about the resurgence of social responsibility on the corporate landscape and increased public awareness on the topic....

Open Access

Efficiency Gets a New Identity

by Lin, Dennis; Wadhwa, Vijay

This article demonstrates the impact RFID will have on existing supply chain processes and the improvements RFID implementation will bring by comparing the benefits of RFID with those of barcode for various supply chain entities. The increases in data cap...

Open Access

Career Corner: The New Job Security

by Hutchins, Greg

Security is an international issue that crosses borders. In today's asymmetric war on terrorism, everyone and everything are possible targets....

Using FMEA to Assess Outsourcing Risk

by Welborn, Cliff

Although outsourcing is a growing trend among U.S. businesses, there are risks involved and not everyone benefits from such arrangements. The advantages of outsourcing must be weighed against risks and go beyond cost savings. Without a systematic...

Open Access

Living Inside China's Quality Revolution

by Pompeo, Jack

Quality processes in China today continue to be influenced by remnants of ancient policies and practices. When Huawei Technologies, one of China’s largest telecommunications manufacturers, recently declared its intention to become the Toyota of the...

Open Access

10 Quality Basics

by Duffy, Grace; Payne, Graeme; Rooney, James; Hare, Lynne; West, John E. "Jack"; Borawski, Paul; Westcott, Russ; Okes, Duke; Guttman, Howard; Foster, S. Thomas; Conklin, Joe

In an overview designed to give quality newcomers a glimpse of the knowledge they need to succeed, ten regular Quality Progress contributors write on 10 basic quality topics that are fundamentals essential to surviving in a quality role. Topics covered...

Standards Outlook: Coming Changes in Aerospace Standards

by Gordon, Dale K.

All parts of the aerospace industry--commercial, business, military and space--currently seem to be doing fairly well. You could say the industry has a lot of momentum....

Open Access

Linking the Supply Chain to TQM

by Matthews, Charles R.

In today's environment of global outsourcing, supplier quality management must transform itself from simply measuring supplier compliance to gathering knowledge, managing risk, and executing project management. Total quality management (TQM) ensures...

Lean Inspection Through Supplier Partnership

by Ericson, Joel

Incoming inspection is a nonvalue-added activity that does not improve a product, but only identifies products that do not meet standards. One way to reduce incoming inspection is to move from traditional sample inspection to a system in which the...

Challenges in RFID Enabled Supply Chain Management

by RFID study group at Pennsylvania State University

Supply chain management is the fastest growing application of radio frequency identification devices (RFID), but few organizations are equipped to deal with the accompanying flood of information. Most definitions of RFID emphasize the technological...

Standards Outlook: Supply Chain Management Remains Aerospace Challenge

by Gordon, Dale K.

The aerospace industry is in the process of shedding new light on the customer-supplier relationship, especially in the never ending quest to deliver defect free, safe and reliable product....

Reflections on the Future of Quality

by Watkins, David K.

Over the years, the intent of quality systems has evolved from enhancing customer satisfaction by meeting their needs to improving overall organizational performance and capabilities. But quality management systems have always lagged behind evolving...

Good News - If You're Ready

by Phillips-Donaldson, Debbie

Futuring is a structured look ahead aimed at enhancing anticipatory skills. ASQ's most recent futures study, conducted in 2005, identified six key forces of change: globalization, innovation, outsourcing, consumer sophistication, value creation, and...

Salary Survey – 2005

by Phillips-Donaldson, Debbie

Full Survey

45 Section 6. Salary by Number of Work Hours Online Section 7. Salary by Nonexempt vs. Exempt Status Online Section 8. Salary by Number of Years' Quality Experience and Highest Level of Education Online Section 9. Salary by Number of Years in Current Pos...

Prepare Students For Technical Careers

by Heinrich, George; Jordan, Karen; Smalley, Audrey; Boast, Steve

In a global comparison, U.S. high school students are not competitive in mathematics, and relatively few pursue engineering or other technical disciplines when they enter college. A survey conducted by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers showed gaps...

Seven Steps To Measure Supplier Performance

by Gordon, Sherry

Most organizations use some type of supplier performance measure, yet few are satisfied with their supplier assessment capabilities and results. Quality professionals are under increasing pressure to avoid supplier problems and retain high performers....

Use Simple Models for Incoming Defects

by Bartlett, Terry R.

The best quality system cannot prevent or detect all defects before delivery, so customers generally set a quality target they want a supplier to achieve. The standard should be high, but achievable. For example, the customer might expect the supplier...

What Do Online Customers Value?

by Tamimi, Nabil; Sebastianelli, Rose; Rajan, Murli

Burgeoning e-commerce sales point to the pivotal role of the Internet as an effective marketing tool. An online survey was used to determine which website design features have the strongest consumer appeal. One section of the survey gathered background...

Quality Management's Role in Global Sourcing

by Watkins, David K.

Globalization and the evolution of quality management systems from a focus on controlling product conformity to a much broader focus on overall enterprise capability have resulted in the need to redefine the role of quality management in dealing with...

A Statistician Looks at Inventory Management

by Kuger, Gregory A.

A major problem facing companies today is how to promptly deliver products to customers without tying up too much capital in the form of inventory buffers. The incorporation of statistical models into supply chain management tactics helps in sizing and...

The Importance of Building Social Capital

by McGrath, Roger Jr.; Sparks, William L.

Maintaining the integrity of the supply chain is critical in times of economic instability. An investment in social capital among organizations within the supply chain is mutually beneficial. The affinity group provides a strategy for developing...

The Metamorphosis of the Quality Professional

by Westcott, Russ

Over the next decade, quality professionals can expect to see their roles increasingly absorbed into project management and other areas. To survive in this environment, quality professionals will have to acquire new competencies....

Open Access

The Image and Reality of Excellence

by Daniels, Susan E.

Medical device manufacturer Medrad Inc. was the only company in the manufacturing sector to receive the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award for 2003. The company has been involved with Baldrige since the award’s inception fifteen years ago....

Open Access

Quality From Scratch: A Model for Small Business

by Duffy, Grace

Whether a company is large or small, quality programs are vital to assure customer, stakeholder, and employee satisfaction. Many small businesses, however, may find limited resources and conflicting priorities make the quest for organizational...

Three C’s + Q = Success

by Faylor, Connie R.

When Bill Thomas left the corporate world to start his own company manufacturing khaki pants patterned after the original World War II U.S. Army issue pants, he found it difficult to find suppliers for the materials required to make the product...

Good Supplier Management Aids New Products Launch

by Balasubramanian, Raj; Baumgardner, Steve

Unisys Corporation, once a vertically integrated company that designed and manufactured most of what was needed to support its products, has changed its focus to providing cost effective solutions to its customers. Since this change requires reliance on...

Open Access

Your Gateway to Quality Knowledge

by Nelsen, Dave

For the past decade, the Quality Information Center (QIC) at ASQ’s Milwaukee headquarters has collected and compiled material from quality professionals in academics, manufacturing and service to create a definitive quality body of knowledge....

Open Access

Learning From Columbia

by Brong, Jerry

In the year since the space shuttle Columbia accident that took the lives of its seven crew members a number of reports say NASA’s management and culture should share the blame. Findings from the accident have significance in all operations...

From Conflict to Collaboration

by Gupta, Anirban

The relationship between a customer and supplier helps determine a product or service’s quality. The stronger the relationship, the more value it can offer....

Open Access

The Message Is Clear

by Hopen, Deborah

This abstract is based on the ]In 2002, the CGISS division of Motorola won the Baldrige award in the manufacturing category. Through strict process improvement measures, the division was able to increase its direct customer loyalty, customer...

Managing Supplier Relationships

by Kumar, Sameer; Bragg, Richard

Effective supply chain management (SCM) can provide companies the competitive edge by adding stability and predictability to their supply stream. Manufacturers can identify vendors that provide high quality service and developing close,...

Open Access

Column: Back to Basics: To Find the Root Cause, That's Why

by Nelsen, Dave

Quality professionals often use tree diagrams to solve problems or implement solutions. Another tool, the why-why diagram, uses a similar approach to determine the root cause of a problem.1 A why-why diagram says, "Slow down. Before we find a solution,...

Open Access

My Supplier’s Capability Is What?

by Pylipow, Peter E.

One fine day at Skyko Industries, Brett, the commodity manager, approached Gail, the manufacturing manager, about a cost savings opportunity....

Open Access

Rx for Excellence

by Daniels, Susan E.

SSM Health Care (SSMHC), the first healthcare winner of the Malcolm Baldrige Award, has been showing the world that a focus on continuous improvement can help the ailing healthcare sector. SSMHC operates as a private, not-for-profit system that owns,...

Open Access

Better Supply Chains with Baldrige

by Vokurka, Robert J.; Lummus, Rhonda R.

Demand for customized products with shorter life cycles requires companies to develop supply chain management concepts to help them maintain competitive advantages. The traditional competitive model that favored mass production has give way to a model...

5S for Suppliers

by Bullington, Kimball E.

Lean supply implies that the supply chain is appropriate for lean production. The 5S program, derived from the Japanese words for sort, set in order, shine, standardize, and sustain, provides a proven model for organizing and maintaining a production...

College and University Programs in Quality

by Johnson, Corinne, Compiler

A list is provided of more than 100 colleges and universities offering courses, programs, and degrees in quality related fields. The list is both alphabetical and geographical and indicates the type of institution and certificates or degrees offered....

Should You Transition to ISO 9001:2000?

by West, John E.; Haworth, Greg; Arter, Dennis R.; Harvey, Kathy; Naish, Phyllis; Green, Joseph W.

With the deadline little more than a year away, indications are that fewer than 20 percent of organizations whose business and quality objectives include compliance to the ISO 9000 standards have made the transition. Six ISO 9000 experts present their...

Open Access

The Little Hot Dog Stand That Could

by Daniels, Susan E.

Pal's Sudden Service isn't a large, sophisticated corporation, but that didn't stop the Tennessee-based restaurant chain from winning the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA). Pal's two executives believe there is a process for everything...

Delivering Quality, Safety and Security in Aviation

by Brong, Jerry

Aviation is one of the most regulated industries in the world. Procedures are standardized for use of airspace, aircraft manufacture, and pilot certification. Regulations are multinational, and yet aviation is an industry in which free enterprise and...

Column: World View: Samsung Uses Quality To Grow

by Daniels, Susan E.

Korean giant draws on just about everything in the toolbox to reach its goals

The Samsung Quality Award was established in 1993 to recognize business divisions by using criteria developed from the Baldrige Award, ISO 9000 quality management standards and the company's own business operation standards. Nearly 70% of Samsung's qualit...

ASQ's Black Belt Certification - A Personal Experience

by Cochrane, Don; Gupta, Praveen

Together with the growing interest in and use of Six Sigma techniques comes the need to assess the qualifications of those seeking quality leadership roles in organizations. The ASQ certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) exam is a practical and cost...

Peter F. Drucker: Delivering Value to Customers

by Watson, Gregory H.

Before Peter F. Drucker published his seminal book defining management as a formal discipline, there was no coherent body of knowledge addressing management issues. Drucker rejects the commonly held belief that the purpose of business is to make a...

Column: Career Corner: Supply Chain Management: A New Opportunity

by Hutchins, Greg

In a recent survey of more than 200 companies, Deloitte Consulting found that while 91% of manufacturers rank SCM as either critical or very important to their company's success, only 2% rank their supply chains as world class. This...

Curriculum Assessment - A Systems Approach

by Salengna, Gary J.; Bantham, John H.

Curriculum assessment (CA) is receiving a lot of attention as more educational institutions focus on the quality of their academic programs. Institutions that don't have formalized plans for integrating CA activities into their cultures, however, will...

Sustainability: Enlarging Quality's Mission

by Hitchcock, Darcy; Willard, Marsha

The past twenty years have seen major changes in the way business is conducted. Quality has taken on an entirely new meaning in the 21st century. In a global economy customer satisfaction, while still a critical business goal, must share the stage with...

What Should Be Changed?

by Fedendall, Lawrence D.; Patterson, J. Wayne; Lenhartz, Christoph; Mitchell, Bryant C.

Tools from two change management systems are compared to show which give managers the best results when implementing changes. The theory of constraints (TOC) features a set of five tools to examine the entire system for continuous improvement. One of...

Quality in the Classroom

by Brewer, Peggy; Friel, Terri; Davig, William; Spain, Judith

Institutions of higher learning have only recently begun to address the issue of how to offer quality products and services. The present turbulent economy coupled with the accreditation requirement for relatively low individual faculty course loads...

Design for Six Sigma: 15 Lessons Learned

by Treichler, David; Carmichael, Ronald; Kusmanoff, Antone; Lewis, John; Berthiez, Gwendolyn

Despite its growing popularity, Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a difficult transition for most companies. Six Sigma professionals from a number of major corporations share their experiences switching from a deterministic to a probabilistic design...

Open Access

Column: Back to Basics: Supplier Selection and Maintenance

by Arter, Dennis R.

The extent you go to depends on the associated cost, production and risk

Companies in the United States use government laws and contract requirements to select suppliers and monitor their suppliers’ performance. To control the goods and services companies buy, they must thoroughly define their requirements for the items or tas...

A Road Map to Six Sigma Quality

by Gross, John M.

Many business executives interested in trying Six Sigma Breakthrough Strategies fail to realize that to be successful Six Sigma programs must become cultural revolutions that involve every member of the organization. What is needed is a road map that...

Concurrent Engineering - A Powerful Enabler of Supply Chain Management

by Balasubramanian, Raj

In transforming from traditional manufacturing operations to complete customer order fulfillment enterprises, many companies are implementing supply chain management strategies (SCM) to improve client satisfaction and reduce costs. Integrating product...

Open Access

Column goes monthly with new contributors

by Stein, Philip

This month six advise on a typical career dilemma

I have a bachelor's degree plus ASQ's quality auditor and quality engineer certifications. He earned a master's degree in statistics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and holds the following ASQ certifications: quality engineer, reliability engineer, qu...

Exploiting the World's Most Recognized Standard

by Palady, Paul

Tremendous progress has been made recently in the harmonization of world standards through the efforts of recognized standard-setting organizations. But it may not be possible in an era of expanding technology and diversified systems to achieve such...

Open Access

Finding the quality work you want on the Web.

by Hutchins, Greg

In our last column, we discussed the three basic types of job sites--company sites, general job databases and job auction sites. Post your resume, respond to some ads and go through the job search process. Online job searching is not like traditional job ...

Open Access

Finding your next job online.

by Hutchins, Greg

Web plays a big role when firms look for workers

Thousands of employers, including federal agencies, companies and small businesses, post job openings in these sites. The job auction sites go even further. They can use the site search engine, intelligent agents or do database cross checks to find you ou...

Semiconductor Assembly Council Promotes Use of Quality Tools

by Cooper, Marla; van Beek, Johan Cornelis

The member companies of the Semiconductor Assembly Council represent manufacturers, assembly and test subcontractors, and end user companies. SAC was established to certify subcontractor quality and process control systems. The member firms represent...

Open Access

The Branding of Six Sigma

by Hutchins, Greg

Brand yourself the same way

So, back to Six Sigma branding: The wannabe quality gurus took their lead from the leading marketing books. To build Six Sigma brand equity, they did what marking experts advise. Wannabe gurus write Six Sigma books to create awareness and buzz....

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