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Open Access

Breaking Down Barriers

by Liu, Shu

To leverage the benefits and prepare for the challenges big data present, quality professionals must change their mindset, get more data, upgrade their skills and expand their roles in the big data universe....


3.4 per Million: The Best of Both Methods

by Breyfogle, Forrest W.

Many organizations have deployed both business process management and lean Six Sigma. The similarities and differences between these two methods could be illustrated using a Venn diagram, shown in Figure 1....


Statistics Roundtable: Providing Better Insights

by Doganaksoy, Necip; Hahn, Gerald J.; and Meeker, William Q.

In an earlier Statistics Roundtable column, we advocated for the use of degradation testing (that is, monitoring change in a quality or performance characteristic) instead of time to failure....


So Many Variables, So Few Observations

by Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Christopher A.; Allen, I. Elaine

Colapsing variables in a factor analysis can have dangerous implications, and it also can be difficult to interpret the resulting factors. But what if you have no choice?...


Open Access

Perspectives: Bank on It

by Kumiega, Andrew; Davis, Michael; Van Vliet, Ben

Automated trading, including high-frequency trading, now accounts for more than 70% of daily trading volume. Though not everyone agrees, most academic studies support the claim that automation benefits the overall functioning of society and markets....


The Power of Prediction

by Kruger, Gregory A.

Inconsistent supplier delivery can negatively impact an organization’s ability to serve its customers. Using quality and statistical methods can help predict demand and minimize the impact of supplier inconsistency....


Innovation Imperative: Risk and Development

by Merrill, Peter

In my first Innovation Imperative column, I wrote that, in short, innovation is a risky business. In this month’s column, I am going to move beyond identifying the nature of the risks we must address and look at how we manage those risks....


3.4 per Million: Roundabout Estimation

by Conklin, Joseph D.

THE IDEAL IN Six Sigma is to directly measure your inputs and outputs. What can a quality practitioner do when that’s not possible or practical?...


Open Access

Paving the Way

by Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Borror, Connie M.

Data and information are at the heart of good investigations and decision making, but are all kinds of data the same? What are the major categories and types of questions to ask to collect and analyze data?...


Statistics Roundtable: Group Effort

by Seaman, Julia E.; Allen, I. Elaine

Cluster analysis is being widely used in disciplines as diverse as marketing, genomics and climate change. The technique lends itself to large data sets and small, focused data sets....


Rain Gauge

by Fulton, Lawrence V.

The Six Sigma define, measure, analyze, design and verify process is appropriate for exceedingly complex engineering construction problems that require the use of simulation and design of experiments....


Law and Order

by Schrunk, David G.

The laws created and enforced by government are among the most important works of humankind. They address the most significant societal problems and have a direct impact on human rights, living standards and the quality of life of every person....


Lasting Impression

by Stauffer, Rip; Owens, Debra

A recent paper found that quality initiatives have made significant contributions to three primary indicators of economic well-being: gross domestic product, corporate tax revenues and employment....


Improving on Excellence

by Buckman, Jim; Buckman, Mary Beth

With the changing face of healthcare in the 1990s, the Mayo Clinic started to measure more thoroughly the results of its efforts to track quality. So it enlisted the help of the Juran Institute to begin a full-fledged quality improvement program....


3.4 per Million: The Significance of Simulation

by Kubiak, T.M.

The certified Six Sigma Master Black Belt body of knowledge, introduced in 2010, included the subject of simulation and, specifically, digital process simulation. This is refreshing because this tool is often omitted from lean Six Sigma training....


Open Access

One Good Idea: Designing for Accuracy

by Navetta, J.L.

For this column, I used regression analysis and design of experiments (DoE) to create a model for predicting production rates in a paper stock cutting facility....


Open Access

Safe and Secure

by Scott, Bill; Krempley, Mark

Organizations everywhere are expected to do more with less in all areas of business. Safety and risk management are not necessarily immune when organizations must make difficult decisions about cuts in personnel and funding....


Open Access

Certification at Work

by Roberson, Russell L.; McKaig, Brian

Organizations face difficult decisions every day: where to invest, how to focus employees and how to drive a competitive advantage in their markets. A decision to launch employee training cannot be taken lightly....


Statistics Roundtable: Complaint Department

by Hare, Lynne B.

PERHAPS YOU KNOW what goes on in most corporate complaint departments. Given euphemistic names such as “consumer affairs” and “consumer response,” their business is still the same....


Open Access

For Starbucks, It's in the Bag

by Johnson, Louis; Burrows, Sarah

When voice-of-the-customer data showed Starbucks Coffee Co. needed to improve the packaging of its one-pound coffee product, it set out to learn the effects of process parameters on the key packaging quality characteristics....


Lessons in Loyalty

by Hayes, Bob E.

Business growth depends on improving customer loyalty behavior. Companies with higher customer loyalty usually experience faster business growth than companies with lower customer loyalty, research has shown....


Statistics Roundtable: Knowing There Are Unknowns

by Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Julia E.

DO THE ITEMS that people carry in their pockets or purses make them more likely to develop cancer? In an epidemiological study on the development of lung cancer in the population, is carrying matches an important variable?...


Know More, Do More

by Chang, Nancy S.Q.; Gagliardi, Frank A.

If organizations want to take advantage of a changing landscape dotted with new opportunities, products and services, they need to make a substantial investment in educating and retaining a competent labor force....


Statistics Roundtable: Why Statisticians Model Data

by Hare, Lynne B.

What follows is an apology. Not an apology as in “I’m sorry,” but an apology as a justification or explanation. You might be thinking it shouldn’t be necessary to explain why statisticians model data. It is just their nature....


Flush with Success

by Grossi, Peter C.

While implementing ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and lean, I’ve worked with a number of companies that use oils and other biotoxic materials. With increasing attention on the environment—through legislation and social pressure—safely disposing...


Open Access

Two in One

by Razzetti, Eugene “Gene” A.

The terms risk analysis, risk assessment and risk management—often used interchangeably—can mean a variety of different concepts and metrics. There is no one single approach to risk management....


Time to Align

by Pietenpol, David

Culture drives leadership behavior and expectations. It can knock down barriers to prosperity or create obstacles that threaten future success. It defines whether an organization embraces or resists change....


Statistics Roundtable: Tried and True

by Hoerl, Roger W. and Snee, Ronald D.

A review of past Statistics Roundtable columns reveals that statisticians and quality professionals are always looking for better ways to increase the breadth and effectiveness of the use of statistical thinking and methods....


Breaking From the Pack

by Watson, Gregory H.

Russ Ackoff's life story is instructive for quality professionals as they trace the development of systems thinking during its 60-year migration....


Standards Outlook: Trust, but Verify

by Russell, J.P.

Grouping product, service and process audits together is somewhat natural, because a process audit may include a product or service audit. I’ve dubbed the combination a verification audit....


Statistics Roundtable: A Remedy Using Residuals

by Mason, Robert L.; Young, John C.

It is common in industrial processes for input variables to be closely associated with output variables. You may frequently encounter two process variables tied together. For example, consider temperature and pressure....


Open Access

Prepared for Battle

by Grossi, Peter C.

Organizations need to remember that while the impact of a recession may be significant from a psychological perspective, the application of sound quality management principles has a much more significant effect on an organization’s success....


Statistics Roundtable: Grab the Brass Ring

by Snee, Ronald D.

Remember going to the amusement park and riding the carousel or merry-go-round? During the ride, there was sometimes a brass ring you could grab from a dispenser.It took some dexterity to snatch the ring from the dispenser as the carousel rotated....


Statistics Roundtable: A Correlation Encounter

by Mason, Robert L.; Young, John C.

In a recent visit to the control room for a processing unit, a new process engineer asks the question: “Why doesn’t the correlation between the two process variables, x1 and x2, match the correlation as suggested by the theory?”...


Statistics Roundtable: Predicting Success

by Allen, I. Elaine; and Seaman, Christopher A.

Considering that a phase three efficacy clinical trial for a potential new product could cost nearly $100 million, spending time in simulation activities before fully committing to developing a new product has proven to be worthwhile for more companies....


Cause and Effect

by Rooney, James J.; Vanden Heuvel, Lee N.; Lorenzo, Donald K., and Jackson, Laura O.

Cause and effect tree analysis—also known as fault tree analysis—begins with a known event, referred to as the top event, and describes possible combinations of events and conditions that can lead to this event....


Calculated Decision

by Johnson, Louis; Sherrill, Robert

When suppliers create control charts and run capability analyses, they assume their data follow a normal distribution. However, the natural distribution of these quality characteristics—and hundreds more like them—is not the normal distribution....


Open Access

Salary Survey 2008: Seeing Green

by Allen, I. Elaine

Significant salary discrepancies exist among quality professionals depending on where they work, their gender and whether they supervise others, according to an analysis of QP’s 2007 and 2008 salary surveys. Part 1, section 1 leads off the salary survey p...


Salary Survey 2008: The Complete Report

by QP Staff

51 Section 6 Salary by Number of Work Hours Online Section 7 Salary by Nonexempt vs. Exempt Status Online Section 8 Salary by Number of Years in Current Position Online Section 9 Salary by Number of Years in Current Position and in the Quality Field Onli...


Strength in Numbers

by Gardner, Leslie; Osburn, Terrence; Pearson, Tom

Finding resources to pursue quality improvement and organizational excellence is the greatest challenge confronting most organizations today, including universities and professional organizations....


Statistics Roundtable: The Reality of Residual Analysis

by Hoerl, Roger W.

In the world of statistics textbooks, independent random samples of size 30 from a normal distribution are a dime a dozen—the norm rather than the exception....


Map Quest

by Cox, Tracy

Raytheon Six Sigma is a proprietary six-step process that Raytheon Co., a defense and aerospace systems supplier, has embedded into its culture. It was developed by an internal team that was guided by the company’s top leadership....


Statistics Roundtable: Match Game

by Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Christopher A.

One useful method for evaluating new medical treatments, devices or services involves propensity score methods - matching members of different groups based on a range of characteristics and forming a probability score....


Launch to Quality

by Widner, Tracy; Gallant, Mitch

After using different quality methods with limited success, the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division, implemented lean Six Sigma in 2004. Through all of this, leadership demonstrated a steadfast commitment to fully implementing lean Six Sigm...


Educating Engineers

by Viles, Elisabeth; Martin, Cristina

Statistics is an indispensable tool for solving engineering problems. But many engineers are not exposed to problems that require the use of statistical methods until they start their professional careers....


Open Access

Classroom Lessons Learned

by Ghysels, Maurice

Public education often tries to emulate the successful methods of industry. However, the experience of a school district in California offers several lessons about achieving continuous improvement in the corporate world....


Open Access

Ghysels Online Sidebar: What Students Think

by Ghysels, Maurice

Moreover, by teaching how to align teachers’ goals to students’ goals, the teachers were more apt to pay attention to organizational goals. Even though we were initially cautious about calling students or parents “external customers” or teachers “interna...


Ghysels Online Sidebar: Modeling Customer Service

by Ghysels, Maurice

Modeling Customer Service Ways top level administrators of the Mountain View Whisman School District modeled customer service included: They visit teachers and staff each Monday at school sites to informally encourage teachers and staff to share their co...


Statistics Roundtable: Detecting Dependent Observations in Multivariate Statistical Process Control

by Mason, Robert L., Young, John C.

Since we must consider many variables at the same time when monitoring a multivariate process, detection of data dependencies between and among the observation vectors is not straightforward. The test procedures that exist for checking for the...


3.4 Per Million: How to Identify and Select Lean Six Sigma Projects

by Mader, Douglas

Lean Six Sigma is a powerful method for improving existing products, processes and services. Six Sigma was developed by Motorola in 1987. Motorola’s Six Sigma yielded significant financial results...


Open Access

It's in the Genes at Cummins

by Daniels, Susan

When asked why diesel maker Cummins used Six Sigma to explain new health insurance benefits to its employees, the response was that Six Sigma is part of Cummins' DNA. Six Sigma methods helped ensure a smooth enrollment process, particularly for union...


The Science in Six Sigma

by de Mast, Jeroen; Bisgaard, Soren

The structure Six Sigma provides for managing an organization's improvement initiatives is more important than its conformance quality target. It also guides project leaders and offers an array of analysis tools. In addition to Six Sigma's DMAIC...


Open Access

You Can Go Home Again

by Daniels, Susan

Jamie Houghton's love for Corning brought him out of retirement and back to the company when it was fighting for survival, due to the decline of the telecommunications industry and decreased demand for Corning's fiber optics. When Houghton returned to...


Challenges in RFID Enabled Supply Chain Management

by RFID study group at Pennsylvania State University

Supply chain management is the fastest growing application of radio frequency identification devices (RFID), but few organizations are equipped to deal with the accompanying flood of information. Most definitions of RFID emphasize the technological...


Open Access

Linking the Supply Chain to TQM

by Matthews, Charles R.

In today's environment of global outsourcing, supplier quality management must transform itself from simply measuring supplier compliance to gathering knowledge, managing risk, and executing project management. Total quality management (TQM) ensures...


Don't Forget the People

by Iyer, Srijayan N.

Standard practice in quality management has been focused on establishing good systems for quality, but many organizations see these efforts fall short of objectives. The problem is the lack of linkage between the way the workforce perceives and...


New Frontiers in the Design of Experiments

by Kenett, Ron S.; Steinberg, David M.

Statistically designed experiments enable businesses to reduce time to market while achieving quality product performance that is critical to survival and success. R.A. Fisher first introduced them in the early 20th century to evaluate the results of...


3.4 Per Million: Deploying the 'D' in DFSS

by Mader, Douglas P.

As Six Sigma initiatives at many organizations have matured, the switch from reactive improvement - based on the DMAIC methodology - to proactive improvement - based on design for Six Sigma (DFSS) - has become pervasive....


Statistics Roundtable: How to Analyze Reliability Data for Repairable Products

by Doganaksoy, Necip; Hahn, Gerald J., Meeker, William Q.

Leveraging powerful - yet simple - methods for reliability data analysis of repairable products or systems can help you stay on the right track....


Open Access

Career Corner: Making Performance Reviews Work for You

by Conklin, Joe

With rare exception in the course of my work life, I have been fortunate to have reasonable and fair supervisors. One thing they tended to agree on was that performance reviews should be a two-way communication process....


Selling Quality Ideas to Management

by Palmer, Brien

Many great ideas fall by the wayside because management does not accept them. This may be because the idea must compete with other priorities or the owner doesn't do enough to sell the idea to management. Three effective ways to enhance an idea are to...


Open Access

Standards & Registrars Directory

by ASQ

TS TR TL RS QS MD 9KS 14K 9K CR CE AU AS TR CS SPC QS 9KS 14K 9K CS VD6 TS TR TL SPC QS MD 9KS 14K 9K CS CE AU AS TS TR SPC 9KS 14K 9K CS AU AS TS QS MD 9KS 14K 9K CSD AU AS 9KS 9K CR AU VD6 TS TR SPC QS MD 9KS 14K 9K CS VD6 TS RS QS 9KS 14K 9K CSD CS AS...


Link Satisfaction To Market Share and Profitability

by Allen, Derek

Organizations seeking to link customer satisfaction data to profitability can choose from a variety of business outcome measures. However, the level of customer interaction varies among industries, making it difficult to link customer satisfaction to...


Good News - If You're Ready

by Phillips-Donaldson, Debbie

Futuring is a structured look ahead aimed at enhancing anticipatory skills. ASQ's most recent futures study, conducted in 2005, identified six key forces of change: globalization, innovation, outsourcing, consumer sophistication, value creation, and...


How to Choose the Appropriate Design

by Anderson-Cook, Christine

When planning an experiment, you can consider many possible sets of observations. Choosing the combinations of factors at which to collect data to make up the best design involves balancing multiple goals and objectives....


Prepare Students For Technical Careers

by Heinrich, George; Jordan, Karen; Smalley, Audrey; Boast, Steve

In a global comparison, U.S. high school students are not competitive in mathematics, and relatively few pursue engineering or other technical disciplines when they enter college. A survey conducted by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers showed gaps...


Axiomatic Design and DFSS

by Mader, Douglas P.

In the last few years, design for Six Sigma (DFSS) has gained much popularity due to the widespread application of Six Sigma principles outside the operations environment, particularly in new product development....


Developing Best in Class Processes at NASA

by Olson, Tim

In addition to its well-known space activities, NASA performs many other engineering activities. Developing processes to ensure the quality and safety of systems is of paramount importance in achieving mission success. For this reason, NASA has created...


A Statistician Looks at Inventory Management

by Kuger, Gregory A.

A major problem facing companies today is how to promptly deliver products to customers without tying up too much capital in the form of inventory buffers. The incorporation of statistical models into supply chain management tactics helps in sizing and...


A Midstream Career Change

by Heimbach, Jim

I began my life in the real world with a new engineering degree, a new job with a major aircraft manufacturer and a new baby. My first brush with the quality industry was after two years as an intern for the Boeing Co....


Follow My Lead

by Offstein, Evan H.; Morwick Jason M.

Only a month into your company's process improvement project, the plant superintendent says he is considering discontinuing the quality initiative....


Selecting Design for Six Sigma Projects

by Mader, Douglas P.

Every organization maintains and constantly changes its portfolio of existing and future development projects. Portfolio management is about allocating resources within the organization to minimize risk and meet strategic goals....


Open Access

Does Baldrige Make a Business Case for Quality

by Dean, Mark L.; Tomovic, Cynthia L.

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) is a widely accepted model promoting quality management as a means to business success. However, because business results are themselves part of the model, the contribution of the approach-deployment...


Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods

by Ograjensek, Irena; Thyregod, Poul

Using statistical methods in quality management systems (QMSs) has been discussed ever since the advent of total quality management (TQM) and ISO 9000 certification. Yet statistics remain an often neglected component of quality management systems....


Column: Standards Outlook: Characteristic Management

by Reid, R. Dan

Executives sometimes wonder why their organizations still have quality problems, despite their best efforts to eliminate them. There are many possible causes and you've probably heard of some of them, such as lack of resources and lack of leadership or...


Column: Statistics Roundtable: One Way To Moderate Ceiling Effects

by Gunst, Richard F; Barry, Thomas E

Multiple linear regression models are ordinarily defined with a continuous (usually normally distributed) response variable. In many applications of regression modeling, however, the response variable is constrained by fixed, achievable lower and upper...


One way to moderate ceiling effects.

by Gunst, Richard F.; Barry Thomas E.

2. Since the predictor and response have the same upper and lower limits, and the extreme values on response and predictor variables most influence a regression fit, you could expect a regression fit to be forced to have a slope of 1. This means the esti...


Best Practices in Process Management

by Dolan, Tom

Process improvement tools have been used to evaluate business processes ranging from employee satisfaction to customer help desk support....


Column: Statistics Roundtable: Process modeling: find the critical few

by Snee , Ronald D.

Finding the critical few X's allows you to better control and optimize a process

With the widespread use of Six Sigma has come a renewed interest in developing statistical models and using regression analysis. Now is a good time to rethink your strategies for developing models. In particular, I believe it is...


Column: World View: European Statistics Network Grows Rapidly

by Bisgaard, Søren; Does, Ronald; Stewardson, Dave

Aims to increase understanding, idea exchange, networking and professional development

ENBIS now has more than 500 members from 25 countries across the entire European continent plus nine non-European countries, including nine members from the United States, seven from Israel and one from Canada. Most members are...


Open Access

A Quality Major

by Sinn, John W.


The doctorate in technology management program offered by the School of Technology at Indiana State University is unique because it is a consortium of seven universities, with ISU being the degree issuing institution. The program provides...


College and University Programs in Quality

by Johnson, Corinne, Compiler

A list is provided of more than 100 colleges and universities offering courses, programs, and degrees in quality related fields. The list is both alphabetical and geographical and indicates the type of institution and certificates or degrees offered....


Open Access

A Thing of the Past?

by Collier, David A.; Goldstein, Susan Meyer; Wilson, Darryl D.

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA), the most widely adopted framework for an interdisciplinary approach to total quality management and organizational performance, has evolved from the original model in 1988 to the 1992 model and the...


Process Mapping's Next Step

by Greenfield, Mathew

The sophisticated technology of process simulation is explained from a nontechnical viewpoint. Simulation technology enables the accurate analysis of complex business processes. The key benefit is that all the analysis and testing take place in a...


Open Access

The Little Hot Dog Stand That Could

by Daniels, Susan E.

Pal's Sudden Service isn't a large, sophisticated corporation, but that didn't stop the Tennessee-based restaurant chain from winning the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA). Pal's two executives believe there is a process for everything...


Column: Frontiers of Quality: Design for Six Sigma

by Mader, Douglas P.

You need more than standard Six Sigma approaches to optimize your product or service development

Many organizations believe design for Six Sigma (DFSS) is a design process when really it is not. DFSS is an enhancement to an existing new product development (NPD) process that provides more...


Column: Frontiers of Quality: Something's Missing

by Voelkel, Joseph G.

An education in statistical methods will make employees more valuable to Six Sigma corporations

Education "implies development of the mind" while training "stresses instruction and drill with a specific end in view." The most effective further development of a Six Sigma program will necessarily involve well-informed...


ASQ's Black Belt Certification - A Personal Experience

by Cochrane, Don; Gupta, Praveen

Together with the growing interest in and use of Six Sigma techniques comes the need to assess the qualifications of those seeking quality leadership roles in organizations. The ASQ certified Six Sigma Black Belt (CSSBB) exam is a practical and cost...


Open Access

First to the Top

by Daniels, Susan E.

A small, scattered school district in a remote part of Alaska, a suburban school district near New York City, and a mid-sized public university have become the first winners of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award in the education category. The...


Champions of Quality: The New Breed

by Phillips-Donaldson, Debbie

Joseph M. Juran notes that champions, or sponsors, leading specific improvement projects taken on by quality councils provide project teams direct access to a high level in the organization's hierarchy. Six Sigma has its own version of a Champion,...


Column: Statistics Roundtable: Using degradation data for product liability analysis.

by Meeker, William Q.; Doganaksoy, Necip; Hahn, Gerald J.

A case study shows how this type of data can provide more precise results in assessing reliability

High reliability systems require individual components to have extremely high reliability for a long time. Often, the time for product development is short, imposing severe constraints on reliability testing. Traditionally, methods for the analysis of...


Concurrent Engineering - A Powerful Enabler of Supply Chain Management

by Balasubramanian, Raj

In transforming from traditional manufacturing operations to complete customer order fulfillment enterprises, many companies are implementing supply chain management strategies (SCM) to improve client satisfaction and reduce costs. Integrating product...


Intentional Change By Design

by Shinn, Gregory S.

Quality initiatives and other organizational changes often disrupt normal internal functions. Many stakeholders, especially executive managers, aren't fully aware of the consequences of a "quality system of the month" approach, and they frequently...


How To Make Surveys Simpler and More Focused

by Vinson, Larry R.

ISO 9000:20000 quality management standards stress the need for better customer communication. While the customer satisfaction survey is a useful tool to facilitate improvement in customer communication, its complexities often limit use in actual...


Open Access

Implementing Quality Programs in the Not-for-Profit Sector

by Lowery, Daniel

The success of quality programs at non-profit organizations often depends on intermediary organizations. These organizations may act as catalysts and include elements of encouragement, support, cajoling, and mandate. United Way organizations are in a...


Enhanced Quality Tools

by Draper, Earl; Ames, Michael

Visibility tools support the management of improvement projects while providing information to investors in proposed projects. There are three categories of cost effective and useful visibility tools. First, object-based simulation software can show...


Reliability Improvement Issues and Tools

by Hahn, Gerald J.; Doganaksoy Necip; Meeker, William Q.

Weibull distributions can also represent products with either a decreasing hazard rate ( less than 1) or increasing hazard rate ( greater than 1). When equals 1 the Q U A L I T Y P R O G R E S S I M A Y 1 9 9 9 I 135 Selling Reliability to Upper Manageme...


The Impact of Contracting on Quality Transformation in R&D

by Griest, Debra L.; Liou, Y. H. Andrew

Outsourcing has an impact on the implementation of quality. R&D (research and development) managers often contract out some work, creating a dual work force. Studies being done in the Transformations to Quality Organizations project suggest that...


The Importance of Concepts in Creativity and Improvement

by Provost, Lloyd P.; Langley, Gerald J.

To think is to follow a succession of connected concepts. Though the definition of concepts is fraught with paradox, concepts are keys to change and improvement. Concepts lead to new directions and new ideas through disturbances or provocations in...


What Does Your Customer Really Want?

by Fredericks, Joan O.; Salter, James M., II

The voice of the customer can be linked to a company's internal quality improvement efforts by paying attention to customer loyalty and value, which are driven by quality, price, and company image. The five steps to management of customer loyalty and...



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