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Measure for Measure: Know Your Surroundings

by Grachanen, Christopher L.

Ambient conditions during tests and calibration activities can have a big influence on measurement results. Some of these influences affect the device being measured; some affect the measurement system; and some affect both....


Parts of the Process

by Aguirre-Torres, Victor; López-Alvarez, Maria Teresa

Repeatability and reproducibility studies are based on the concept of variance components estimation. This is a remarkable achievement of statistical science because people usually think in terms of means and trends, not variation around a mean....


Open Access

Paving the Way

by Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Borror, Connie M.

Data and information are at the heart of good investigations and decision making, but are all kinds of data the same? What are the major categories and types of questions to ask to collect and analyze data?...


Measure for Measure: According to Specifications

by Shah, Dilip

My previous column discussed the averages and computation of different standard deviations. On the heels of that, it makes sense to discuss basic measurement considerations and specifications....


Statistics Roundtable: Not Significant, But Important?

by Seaman, Julia E., and Allen, I. Elaine

In March 2011, the Supreme Court ruled that even if a result from a controlled clinical trial was not statistically significant, it still might be important....


Lessons in Loyalty

by Hayes, Bob E.

Business growth depends on improving customer loyalty behavior. Companies with higher customer loyalty usually experience faster business growth than companies with lower customer loyalty, research has shown....


Measure for Measure: Keep Your Resolution

by Shah, Dilip

When estimating measurement uncertainty for a measurement parameter, it is necessary to take into consideration the error permitted by accuracy specification, precision and resolution....


Expert Answers: March 2011

by QP Staff

Explaining rework verification ... Getting management involved ... Measurement confusion....


Statistics Roundtable: Knowing There Are Unknowns

by Allen, I. Elaine; Seaman, Julia E.

DO THE ITEMS that people carry in their pockets or purses make them more likely to develop cancer? In an epidemiological study on the development of lung cancer in the population, is carrying matches an important variable?...


3.4 per Million: It’s a Marathon, Not a Sprint

by Conklin, Joseph D.

Six Sigma practitioners like their successes swift, large and final. Nature and circumstance, however, are rarely that kind. Normally, success is secured one step at a time....


Measure for Measure: Balanced Budget

by Shah, Dilip

In a previous edition of this column, I discussed Type-A and Type-B contributors of measurement uncertainty and what goes into a measurement budget. In this installment, I will outline a process for building that budget....


Open Access

A Dose of DMAIC

by Mukherjee, Shirshendu

Ruby hospital, a multispecialty for-profit facility in Calcutta, India, was the first in Eastern India to embrace ISO 9001 and is the only one in the country to have successfully deployed a Six Sigma improvement program....


Open Access

The True Test of Loyalty

by Hayes, Bob

The customer loyalty field has experienced much technological innovation, such as automated reporting portals and integration of attitudinal and behavioral data in customer relationship management applications, over the past decade....


Statistics Roundtable: The Reality of Residual Analysis

by Hoerl, Roger W.

In the world of statistics textbooks, independent random samples of size 30 from a normal distribution are a dime a dozen—the norm rather than the exception....


Quality Glossary

by Nelsen, Dave

Five years after it published its first glossary of quality terms, ASQ has revised that glossary with updated definitions and new entries, many from the lean glossary published in 2005. This reference of terms, acronyms, and prominent figures in the...


Statistics Roundtable: Dependent Univariate Observations and Statistical Control

by Mason, Robert L.; Young, John C.

Have you ever wondered why your process control procedure doesn't work just right? It might be that the underlying assumptions are not completely valid....


Open Access

Back to Basics: Data Collection Guidelines: the People Element

by Laman, Scott

Collecting high quality data is essential to the success of any project, process improvement or new product development....


The Histogram for Complex Parts

by Vermani, S.K.

In the aerospace industry, production and procurement usually consists of infrequent lots of complex parts with relatively small lot sizes. Data are often insufficient to implement standard process assessment techniques. In these situations, a percent...


Measure for Measure: Appraiser Variation in Gage R&R Measurement

by Ermer, Donald

In part one of this column, I said if our data analysis is inaccurate, it does not represent the true quality characteristics of the part or product being measured, even if we're using quality improvement tools correctly....


Open Access

Measure for Measure: Improved Gage R&R Measurement Studies

by Ermer, Donald

Many manufacturers are using tools like statistical process control (SPC) and design of experiments (DoE) to monitor and improve product quality and process productivity. However, if the data collected are not accurate and precise, they do not...


Eight Essential Tools

by Snee, Ronald D.

The broad use of Six Sigma since its introduction in the 1980s has taught us much about how to make the best use of Six Sigma tools. Now we need to take a look back and reflect on what we’ve learned...


Column: Measure for Measure: Choose Your Words Carefully

by Stein, Philip

We need to be more precise when talking about specifications and tolerances

We need to use more precise language when we talk about specifications and tolerances. The results are often important or even crucial, yet the words we use are approximate and sometimes just incorrect.

More frequent...


Open Access

Developing a New Kind of Certification

by Hartman, Melissa G.


One of ASQ's newest certification exams, the certified quality improvement associate (CQIA), is a unique example of process management and response to customer needs. While most certifications are geared toward quality practitioners, CQIA...


Column: Measure for Measure: Meeting Specifications

by Stein, Philip

Compensate for measurement error in test results

Particular specifications may be critical to the customer's uses, but the resolution given is less than the manufacturer's instruments provide, as when the specification reads 3.5 but the instruments can measure 3.4999. To what extent can one...


Column: Measure for Measure: Measuring for Keeps

by Stein, Philip

Measurement uncertainty can be determined, even in destructive testing...


Uncertainty and destructive testing.

by Stein, Philip

Measurement uncertainty can be determined, even in destructive testing

The fundamental principle of measurements, one I've discussed many times in this column, is that measurement uncertainty can be determined in most situations. If the process of measurement does not affect the item being measured, repeated measurements of ...


Column: Statistics Roundtable: Using degradation data for product liability analysis.

by Meeker, William Q.; Doganaksoy, Necip; Hahn, Gerald J.

A case study shows how this type of data can provide more precise results in assessing reliability

High reliability systems require individual components to have extremely high reliability for a long time. Often, the time for product development is short, imposing severe constraints on reliability testing. Traditionally, methods for the analysis of...


New uncertainty method is taking hold.

by Stein, Philip

Refinements to traditional approach

The Type A uncertainty may be calculated (as the standard deviation) from the variation among the many "replicates" (repeats) of the same measurement. Many Type B uncertainties, for example, can be eliminated by calibration (just correct for the known, ca...


Avoiding Calibration Overkill

by Stein, Philip

Ratio requirements need to be re-examined

Early in the 20th century, establishment of laboratories devoted to measurement science, such as the U.S. National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), focused formal attention on measurements as a subject wo...


The New Pragmatism: Going Beyond Shewhart and Deming

by Lovitt, Michael R.

The pragmatism of Walter A. Shewhart and W. Edwards Deming is contrasted with that of Richard Rorty. Shewhart and Deming were influenced by the work of C. I. Lewis, who based his conceptual pragmatism on ideas of Charles S. Peirce, William James, and...


Five Myths About Customer Satisfaction

by Rosenberg, Jarrett

Customer satisfaction programs are harmed by misperceptions. Satisfaction is not objective. Instead, it is an attitude that requires indirect and careful analysis. Measuring it is not simple or one-dimensional. Instead, satisfaction is complex and...


Column: Statistics Corner: The Use and Abuse of Cpk, Parts 1-4

by Gunter, Berton H.

Part 1: Quality Progress, Vol. 22, No. 1, JANUARY 1989, pp. 72-73 Part 2: Quality Progress, Vol. 22, No. 3, MARCH 1989, pp. 108-109 Part 3: Quality Progress, Vol. 22, No. 5, MAY 1989, pp. 79-80 Part 4: Quality Progress, Vol. 22, No. 7, JULY 1989, pp....



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