Puri, Subhash C. (1993, ASQC) Agriculture Canada; Ottawa, Canada
Developing a quality model of service can be difficult because services are intangible, perishable, and subjective. Nevertheless, two useful models are the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 9004-2 model and the total quality management (TQM) model. The focus here is on the intangible services found in such businesses as banking, large scale retailing, restaurants, and airlines. Quality is difficult to measure in these endeavors because it is the customer who decides what constitutes quality, based on images, expectations, and perceptions. Although there are comparatively few established standards for service performance, ISO 9004-2 is an excellent model. It is the international standard for quality management and quality system elements for services. The key factors of this model are: identification of customer needs and expectations; establishment of management responsibilities; identification of personnel and material resources; and establishment of a well structured quality system. Another model for quality service follows the principles of TQM. Such a self directed, self developed model should include these steps: identify customer needs; outline management responsibilities; chart service processes; implement improvement projects; and review and revise the model by developing continuous improvement and evaluation programs. The key elements of either model are to obtain customer input and to improve the performance of front line employees.
Customer expectation,Customer service,ISO 9000,Service sector,Total Quality Management (TQM)