Russo, Mary Ann; Snyder, Mark E. (1992, ASQC) Digital Equipment Corporation, Stow, MA
Total Quality management (TQM), a process of continuous improvement and innovation led by top management, is fundamentally based on the concept that all people in an organization, at all levels, should be committed to, motivated by, rewarded upon the basis of, and equipped to perform the task of meeting or exceeding customer expectations. Crucial to successful TQM implementation is employee involvement, participation, and empowerment, which lead to a motivated, productive workforce who regularly contribute ideas to improve processes as customers' expectations change. Any company which embraces a TQM strategy must also undergo a profound corporate cultural transformation culminating in changes in beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. In organizations, since behavior is influenced and reinforced by reward and recognition, and since things that are rewarded are the things that are performed, a basic tool for creating such change is through reward and recognition, often referred to as a "reinforcement chain." Reward is the conveyance of items of value and other forms of personal satisfaction to individuals or groups. Recognition is an ongoing communications activity by which appreciation is declared for the contributions of individuals or groups. Recognition itself is a useful tool, but reward is ineffective without recognition. When a company implements a TQM initiative, it must clearly reward and recognize the following behaviors: process improvement; teamwork and collaboration; problem prevention; customer satisfaction; and the role of manager as coach or facilitator. Both line managers and Human Resources representatives should be involved to ensure integration of reward and recognition with a company's business objectives.
Continuous improvement (CI),Rewards and recognition,Total Quality Management (TQM)