Chen, Milton (1990, ASQC) San Diego State University, San Diego, CA
It usually takes 3 to 5 years for an organization (company, subsidiary, division, or factory) to achieve a high level of total quality management (TQM) in winning the Deming Prize in Japan or the Baldrige Award in U.S. TQM implementation involves four phases: Preparation, Introduction, Diffusion, and Solidifying. Based on studies of companies that have won the Deming Prize and the Baldrige Award, this paper presents the systematic approach that should be employed in the introduction of TQM, and a time table for accomplishing TQM goals in a step-wise fashion. A case example of the phase-in implementation strategy from a small manufacturing company is also presented for critical evaluation.
Conceptually, total quality management consists of various components: 1) TQM from the top Hoshin or policy management, 2) TQM from the bottom - small group activities, 3) functional and cross-functional TQM, and 4) TQM for cooperating companies. The phase-in implementation plan follows this conceptual framework and develops an implementation time table. In the preparatory phase, activities center aroundeducation and training, policy setting and organization. The second phase involves the selection Of projects, presentations, initial QC diagnosis, and feedback. The third phase, diffusion, takes on functional and cross-functional QC, including marketing, design, and production. TQM for cooperating companies becomes critical in this phase. In the last phase, the company solidifies the implementation and makes TQM a way of corporate life.A prototype phase-in timetable of 3 years is developed by specifying month-to-month activities. Barriers, pitfalls, and problems encountered in actual cases are discussed with the view of counteracting these obstacles. Special emphasis will be on TQM in small businesses. The most important key to success - Hoshin Management -- will be contrasted with Management By Objectives (MBO) to illustrate the differences in management styles under TQM. Moreover, American style TQMwill be compared with Japanese style TQC.
This presentation should aid companies, especially small businesses, in their quest for a high level of successful TQM implementation worthy of the Deming Prize or the Baldrige Award.
Quality management (QM),Total Quality Management (TQM),Case study,Implementation