Stratton, A. Donald (1987, ASQC) AT&T Network Systems, Atlanta, GA
Cause and Effect studies were developed by Kaoru Ishikawa and documented in his book Guide to Quality Control. Force Field Analysis was developed by the American behavioral scientist, Kurt Lewin. Combining these two processes results in a powerful technique that can be used by workers and management to define not only problems, but more importantly, solutions. The CE/FFA (Cause and Effect/Force Field Analysis) technique allows those closest to the issues to identify problems, their causes, and the forces that can effect improvement. It then produces straightforward information so management can solve these problems.