Lawton, Robin L. (2002, ASQ) International Management Technologies
A balanced scorecard, rather than focusing on a single dimension of business performance, integrates diverse areas such as finances, processes, customers, and employees in a single comprehensive management decision tool. An effective balanced scorecard reflects elements which are worth analyzing, directly related to an area of concern, and can be measured and tied directly to outcomes. Performance measurement should relate to eight primary areas: customer desired outcomes; outcomes undesirable to customer; customer desired product and service attributes; process characteristics desired by customers; producer desired outcomes; outcomes undesirable to producer; producer desired product attributes; and producer desired process characteristics. Balance requires attention to elements that are valued by the customer as well as those important to the producer.
Customer focus,Customer satisfaction (CS),Voice of the customer (VOC),Metrics,Scorecards,Measurement and control