Crispo, Al (1995, ASQC) Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907
The author, who has benchmarked organizations where teamwork and empowerment are emphasized, holds the premise that leadership is the only common denominator of world class organizations.
The characteristics of skilled leaders include organizational skills, focus on specific objectives, the ability to rally employees around a cause, and the ability to create a common vision. The author's experience as the manager of a traditional manufacturing plant inspired him to empower his employees to solve productivity and customer scheduling problems. Although the buzz words of teamwork and empowerment were never verbalized, employees put these concepts into practice. Empowerment had become a natural outgrowth of a participative management style.
The transition from "Theory X" management to a participative management style nurtures individualism and challenges employees to take ownership of processes that directly affect their jobs. It isn't necessary to preach the concepts of teamwork and empowerment if you provide an environment conducive to these concepts.