Helena Haapio, Lexpert Ltd.
E-commerce consists of transactions and relationships. According to Philip Crosby, quality managements purpose is to make all transactions complete and correct, while all relationships are to be successful (Crosby 1996). This article discusses Crosbys profound truth in the context of e-commerce.
The global reach of online stores automatically involves new customer and legal requirements. Misunderstandings can easily arise and sour relationships. An online storefront can help minimize risks and make quality an integral part of online salesprovided the store was designed and built with these goals.
A systematic approach is needed to identify and respond to quality and legal issues faced in converting to electronic processes. Management, rather than programmers, should be in charge of a companys online store. This article introduces the concept of Safe Sales: building quality, risk management, and proactive legal planning into
e-commerce. This article demonstrates how e-commerce benefits from quality, technical, and legal profes-sionals working together toward improved online storefrontsmaximizing business opportunities and minimizing potential pitfalls.
Key words: contract review, commitment control, customer relations, proactive legal planning, Web-site content
TIPS, TECHNIQUES, CHECKLISTS, AND GUIDES
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Baumgartner, J., and Schulze C. 2000. Dont panic! Do E-commerce. In A Beginners Guide to European Law Affecting E-commerce. See http://europa.eu.int/ISPO/ecommerce/legalguide.html
Besek, J. M., S. E. Colman, J. J. Linnemann, J. F. Ruh, and O. R. Smoot. 1998. A checklist for Web site counsel. The Computer Law Association, Inc. See http://www.cla.org/checklist.htm
Brinker, S. Test Your E-Commerce Store. iDecisionMaker.
Brown, L. M. 1950. Understanding and preventing risks in offers to form a contract. In The Preventive Law Handbook. Also included in Gruner, R.S. Preventive Law in Contracts at http://www.cyberinstitute.com/preventivelaw/week3.htm
Dreben, R. N., and J. L. Werbach. 1999. Top 10 things to consider in developing an electronic commerce Web site. The Computer Lawyer 16, no. 5 (May): 17-21.
DuBois, P-A., and K. H. Slade. 2000. EU Internet directives and their implications for U. S. Internet Companies. Hale and Dorr Publication.
DuBois, P-A., and Slade, K.H. 2000. Online contracting procedures need to be adjusted when selling to EU consumers. Hale and Dorr Publication.
Effross, W.A. 1997. The legal architecture of
virtual stores: World Wide Web sites and the Uniform Commercial
Code. 34 San Diego Law Review: 1263-1400. (This article
includes as an appendix a checklist of Commercial Law Issues
for Web site owners). See
Effross, W. A. 1999. A Web-site checklist: Consider click-wrap pages, linkage disclaimers and forum policies. Legal Times (March 1): 34. Washington College of Law, American University. See http://www.wcl.american.edu/pub/faculty/effross/legattimesweb22.html
Ezor, J. 2001. Your guide to moving your business
onto the Internet without landing in legal quicksand. See http://www.clickingthrough.com/index.html
FFIEC. 2001. Authentication in an electronic banking environment. FFIEC guidance. See http://www.ffiec.gov/PDF/pr080801.pdf
FTC. 2000. Electronic commerce: Selling internationally. A guide for business. FTC Business Alert. See http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-internet.htm
Grossman, M. 2001. International business on the Web. The Miami Herald / TechLaw Archives.
Grossman, M. 2001. Legal tips for a Website owner. The Miami Herald / TechLaw Archives.
Grossman, M. 2000. Contract negotiation crucial before Website development. The Miami Herald / TechLaw Archives.
Grossman, M. 1999. Selling on the Internet? Practical tips to protect your investment. Becker & Poliakoffs Cyberlaw.News.
Gruner, R.S. 1998. Introduction to preventive law. An introduction to the systematic avoidance of legal liability through the practice of preventive law. See http://www.cyberinstitute.com/preventivelaw/
Kaur, A., and J. Reynolds. 2000. Content management. Microsoft TechNet.
Kenneally E. 2000. The byte stops here: Duty and liability for negligent Internet security. Computer Security Journal XVI, no. 2.
Kern, M. 2000. Seven steps to selecting the right Web development firm. iDecisionMaker. See http://www.i-on.com/know/articles/selectingWebFirm.asp
KPMG. 2001. New strategies for success in e-business: Managed risks to protect brand, retain customers, and enchance market. KPMG white paper.
McMahon, J. P. 2000. Applying the CISG guides for business managers and counsel. The CISG database of the Institute of International Commercial Law of the Pace University School of Law. See http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cisg/guides.html
Masons. 1997 - 2001. Guides and checklists, for example, on jurisdiction, online contract formation, Internet advertising, dealing with consumers, regulating online payment, and using exemption clauses in Web sales. Out-Law.com.
Meyer, G.S., A. S. Raul, and F. R. Volpe. 2001. Liability for computer glitches and online security lapses. Sidley Austin Brown & Wood Feature. See http://www.sidley.com/cyberlaw/features/liability.asp
PriceWaterhouseCoopers. 2000. Protect and survive: Regulation of e-commerce in the financial services industry. PriceWaterhouseCoopers report.
Randall, R. C. 2001. Quality in the dot-com world. E-commerce distributorship gains ISO 9002 registration. See /data/subscriptions/qp/2001/0201/86_emerging_feb01.html Sidebar of the article: By Any Other Name: Adapting ISO 9002 to Dot-Com. See /data/subscriptions/qp/2001/0201/86_sidebar_by_any.html. Available only for ASQ members.
Sinrod, E. J. 2001. E-legal: To make it stick,
make them click. USAtoday. See http://www.usatoday.com/life/cyber/ccarch/2001-08-23-sinrod.htm
Speer, J. B. 2000. Legal requirements in e-commerce testing. Microsoft TechNet.
Talerico, A. 2000. Anatomy of an RFP (Make your first step the right one with a Request for Proposal); Plan It Before You Build It (Save yourself from the never-ending project from hell); and Role Call (Build a web team for success). iDecisionMaker. All available through http://www.i-on.com/know/management.asp
Whorl, K. 2000. Release management for a dot-com. Microsoft TechNet.
SITES TO LOOK FOR RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS,
EU DIRECTIVES, ETC.
UCC Revised Article 2. Sales: http://www.law.upenn.edu/bll/ulc/ulc.htm
EU Directive on electronic commerce and other EU Directives, Law & E-Commerce: http://europa.eu.int/ISPO/ecommerce/legal/legal.html - see also http://europa.eu.int/ISPO/ecommerce/legalguide.html
European Union Law: http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/index.html
Better Business Bureau/BBBOnLine. Code of Online Business Practices.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC): U.S. Perspectives on Consumer Protection in the Global Electronic Marketplace. FTC International Web Survey 1999; Dot-Com Disclosures: Information about Online Advertising; Advertising and Marketing on the Internet: The Rules of the Road and various other FTC publications are available through http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/menu-internet.htm
United States Government Electronic Commerce Policy. Important U.S. Documents on Electronic Commerce Policy.
Interagency Working Group on Electronic Commerce. A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce. The White House (July 1, 1997).
OTHER WEB SITES OF INTEREST
http://www.gigalaw.com: legal information for Internet professionals; for example, articles and news
http://www.ecominfocenter.com/services/emerchants/legal.html: legal e-commerce issues
http://www.qlinks.net: links to news items about legal and regulatory aspects of the Internet
Working Group on Electronic Contracting Practices, Subcommittee on Electronic Commerce of the Cyberspace Law Committee of the American Bar Association's Business Law Section
http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/index.html: Lex Mercatoria, the International Trade Law Monitor: information and links related to international commercial laws and electronic commerce
http://www.preventivelawyer.org: National Center for Preventive Law
SELECTED NEWS SERVICES AND MAILING LISTS
http://www.gigalaw.com/news: Daily reports on Internet and technology law news from around the Web, with weekly updates. Also available on handheld devices: see GigaLaw-to-Go
http://www.law.com: Law.com's Legal Newswire: daily legal news
http://www.law.com/professionals/techlaw.html: Law.coms Tech Law Practice Center Alert e-mail with weekly updates, available only to Practice Center subscribers
Daily news from the global marketplace with weekly round-ups by email. Also available on WAP enabled devices. Free registration required.© 2001 Helena Haapio, Lexpert Ltd, Helsinki, Finland
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