Factors that affect measurement system variation can be studied using the gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R) technique.
Measurement system variation can be characterized by location (stability, bias, linearity) and width or spread (repeatability and reproducibility).
Gage repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R) study can be applied in most manufacturing-related measurement systems. It may be used as:
Excerpted from Donald W. Benbow, Ahmad K. Elshennawy, and H. Fred Walker’s The Certified Quality Technician Handbook, ASQ Quality Press, 2003, pages 116-117.